Criminal Law Web

Canadian Criminal Law
Cases and Materials

Table of Contents

Introduction: General Approach

  Critical: comparative, historical, contextual
Dubber, Criminal Law in Comparative Perspective

 Part I. Fundamentals & Frameworks

Chapter 1. The Province of Criminal Law A. Law and Police

Dubber, Police Power Model of the Criminal Process
Rousseau, Blackstone, Cyclopaedia of Political Science
Morris, Persons and Punishment
Fuller, Morality of Law Code of Service Discipline N.Y. Agric. & Mkts. Law § 121
B. Public Law and Private Law

  Dubber, Criminal Law Between Public and Private Law Linden & Feldthusen, Functions of Tort Law Assault in Crime and Tort - Tort, Crime, and Compensation for Victims McMurtry Report R. v. Cuerrier (snapshot); N.C. v. W.R.B.; Re Jane Doe (CICB) C. Criminal Law in Canada: The Canadian Criminal Code

Friedland, Codification in the Commonwealth Linden, Recodifying Canadian Criminal Law Stephen, General View & Criminal Code Bill Commission, Report (1879) Stephen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity (1874) Stephen, A History of the Criminal Law of England (1883) Self-Defense: A History in Codes Chapter 2. Theories and Concepts of Punishment A. Theories
R. v. C.A.M. R. v. Christie U.S. Federal Sentencing Guidelines B. Concepts
R. v. Lyons R. v. L.M. R. v. Cross Hörnle, "Human Rights Issues in the General Part of Substantive Criminal Law" Chapter 3. Sources and Limits of the Power to Punish A. POGG and Criminal Law Power
Margarine Reference R. v. Hydro-Québec Constitution Act, 1867 (esp. ss. 91 & 92) Valverde, "Peace, Order, and Good Government" Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, First Imperial Police Ordinance (1530) N.Y. State Police Regulations, 1781-1801 B. Harm Principle
R. v. Malmo-Levine Stephen, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity Dubber, Rechtsgut and Harm Principle Chapter 4. Legality Principle (nulla poena) A. Rule of Law/Rechtsstaat
Fuller, Morality of Law Dubber, The Principle of Legality B. Legislativity
Frey v. Fedoruk Shaw v. DPP C. Specificity
R. v. Nova Scotia Pharmaceutical Society D. Strict Construction/Lenity
R. v. Robinson R. v. Paré R. v. McIntosh R. v. Sharpe R. v. L.B. E. Prospectivity
Application under s. 83.28 of the Criminal Code F. Publicity
R. v. Furtney G. Codification
United Nurses of Alberta v. Alberta Chapter 5. Jurisdiction
R. v. Stucky Davidson v. British Columbia Code of Service Discipline German Criminal Code Chapter 6. Analysis of Criminal Liability A. Three Levels of Liability
Analytic Structure of Criminal Liability Dubber, Comparative Analysis of Criminal Liability Criminal Code Bill Commission, Report (1879) B. German Scheme
Naucke, An Insider's Perspective C. Victim Compensation Scheme
Dubber, "Analysis of Compensability" Compensation for Victims of Crime Act (Ont.) D. Tort Scheme
Linden, Tort Defences & German Civil Code § 823 E. An Application: The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens
The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens Part II. General Principles of Criminal Law Chapter 7. Actus Reus (Objective Offense Elements) A. Actness
People v. Davis LRCC §§ 2(2) to 2(3)(a) MPC §§ 1.13(5), (9), 2.01 B. Voluntariness
R. v. Larsonneur R. v. Shaw Hill v. Baxter LRCC § 3(1) MPC § 2.01 C. Omission R. v. Instan People v. Robbins State v. Miranda R. v. Browne Fagan v. Commissioner of Metropolitan Police R. v. Miller R. v. Thornton LRCC § 2(3) MPC § 2.01 StGB § 13 French Penal Code arts. 223-6, 7 StGB § 323c LRCC § 10(2) Quebéc Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms §§ 1, 2 D. Possession
1. Significance and Variety
Dubber, "Policing Possession" Possession in the Canadian Criminal Code
2. "Actus Reus"
An Act for the better preventing the counterfeiting the current coin of this kingdom, 1697, 8 & 9 Will. 3, c. 26 (Eng.). An Act for the better prevention of offences, 1851, 14 & 15 Vict., c. 19 (Eng.) R. v. Lennard R. v. Dugdale LRCC § 2(3) (comment) MPC § 2.01(4) Dubber, "Policing Possession"
3. Varieties of Possession
a. actual (physical)
R. v. Hess R. v. Beaver
b. constructive
(i) personal R. v. Christie (ii) joint R. v. Chambers
4. Presumptions
R. v. Oakes Dubber, "Policing Possession" Chapter 8. Mens Rea (Subjective Offense Elements) A. Voluntariness and Culpable Mental States
In the Matter of Ronnie L. B. Schemes of Mental States C. Definitions
LRCC § 2(4) MPC § 2.02, N.Y. Penal Law § 15.05 StGB § 15 StGB (Alternative Draft) §§ 17, 18 D. The Boundaries of Intent: Varieties of Subjective Fault
R. v. Lewis R. v. Dunbar R. v. Paquette R. v. Buzzanga MPC § 2.02(8) R. v. Hibbert R. v. Moo E. The Boundaries of Culpability: Subjective vs. Objective Fault
R. v. G and another R. v. Tutton and Tutton R. v. Hundal R v. Beatty R v. De Ciantis F. Constitutional Constraints
1. Strict and Absolute Liability
R. v. City of Sault Ste. Marie Reference Re: Section 94(2) of the Motor Vehicle Act R. v. Wholesale Travel Group Inc. Sayre, Public Welfare Offenses Morissette v. United States MPC §§ 2.02(3), (4), 2.05
2. Constructive Murder

R. v. Vaillancourt R. v. Martineau LRCC § 6(3) MPC §§ 210.2, 210.3 StGB §§ 211-213

 3. Foreseeability
R. v. DeSousa R. v. Creighton Chapter 9. Causation
R. v. Roberts R. v. Pagett R. v. Cheshire R. v. Smithers R. v. Blaue R. v. Cribbin R. v. Nette R. v. Sinclair People v. Kibbe LRCC § 2(6) MPC § 2.03 Chapter 10. Inchoate Crimes A. Attempt 1. Concepts and Types of Attempt
LRCC § 4(3) StGB §§ 22-23 MPC §§ 5.01, 5.05(1)
2. Mens Rea

R. v. Lajoie R. v. Ancio
3. "Actus Reus": Incomplete Attempts

R. v. Cline R. v. Sorrell and Bondett R. v. Deutsch People v. Lehnert
4. Impossibility
U.S.A. v. Dynar People v. Dlugash B. Counselling

R. v. Hamilton LRCC § 4(4) MPC § 5.02 C. Conspiracy
R. v. Dèry U.S.A. v. Dynar LRCC § 4(5) MPC § 5.03(1), (5), (6) Chapter 11. Liability for Another's Conduct A. Concepts and Types of Derivative Liability
LRCC § 4(1), 4(2) StGB §§ 25-27, 29 MPC § 2.06(1)-(3), (6)(c) B. Complicity
R. v. Dunlop and Sylvester R. v. Popen R. v. Dooley R. v. Logan R. v. Kirkness R. v. Hibbert R. v. Briscoe R. v. Hughes R. v. J.F. C. Abandonment
R. v. Ball R. v. Gonzague People v. Staples StGB § 24 MPC §§ 2.06(6)(c), 5.01(4), 5.02(3), 5.03(6) N.Y. Penal Law § 40.10 D. Vicarious Liability (respondeat superior)
R. v. Hawinda Taverns Ltd.
E. Corporate Liability
1. Statutory Definitions of Personhood

Interpretation Act s. 35(1) Indian Penal Code s. II, s. 11
S. Afr. Close Corporations Act s. 2(2), 2(4)
Cal. Bus. & Prof. Act,
s. 302
Haw. Rev. Stat.
§ 701-118
N.Y. Penal Law
§ 10.00(7), 125.05

2. Foundations of Corporate Criminal Liability

New York Central and Hudson River Railway Co. v. United States

Lennard's Carrying Co. v. Asiatic Petroleum Co.
Criminal Code of the Russian Federation
§ 4.19

Weigend, "Societas delinquere non potest?"
Beale, "A Response to the Critics of Corporate Criminal Liability"

3. Vicarious Liability Doctrine

LRCC § 2(5) MPC § 2.07 People v. Congregational Khal Chaisidei Skwere, Inc.
4. Identification Doctrine

R. v. Waterloo Mercury Sales Ltd. R. v. Canadian Dredge and Dock Co. Ltd. et al.
Tesco Supermarkets v. Nattrass

R. v. Safety Kleen Inc.

5. Corporations and the Charter

R. v. CIP Inc.

6. Reforms

A. Canada

CCC ss. 22.1 - 22.2

Archibald, Jull & Roach, "The Changed Face of Corporate Criminal Liability" R. v. Metron Construction Corp.

B. Australia

Criminal Code Act 1995 § 2(5)


Corporate Manslaughter and Corporate Homicide Act 2007 s. 1
R. v. Lion Steel Equipment Ltd.

7. Other Corporate Liability Provisions: Overview

South Africa

	Chapter 12. Mistake & Intoxication	
		A. Mistake	
1. Mistake of Fact
R. v. Rees R. v. Metro News Ltd. R. v. Pappajohn R. v. Sansregret R. v. Osolin R. v. Ladue R. v. Burgess R. v. Vlcko R. v. Kundeus LRCC § 3(2) MPC § 2.04(1) StGB § 16
2. Mistake of Law
R. v. Campbell and Mlynarchuk R. v. Ross The Statutory Instruments Act R. v. Molis R. v. Pontes R. v. Docherty People v. Coe R. v. Dalley R. v. Forster R. v. Jorgensen Lévis (City) v. Tétreault R. v. Pena LRCC § 3(7) MPC § 2.04(3), (4) StGB § 17 B. Intoxication
DDP v. Beard DPP v. Majewski R. v. Bernard R. v. Daviault LRCC § 3(3) MPC § 2.08 StGB § 323a Chapter 13. Justification A. Concepts and Types of Defense
Blackstone, Commentaries Criminal Code Bill Commission, Report R. v. Perka Naucke, "An Insider's Perspective" LRCC ch. 3 N.Y. Penal Law § 25 Patterson v. New York R. v. Whyte B. Protection of Persons Administering and Enforcing the Law
R. v. Brennan LRCC § 3(13) MPC §§ 3.03, 3.07 C. Persons in Authority
Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth and the Law v. Canada LRCC § 3(14) MPC § 3.08 D. Self-Defense
R. v. Pétel R. v. McIntosh R. v. Pawliuk R. v. Lavallee R. v. Deegan R. v. Faid R. v. Webers R. v. Baxter LRCC § 3(10) MPC § 3.03 StGB §§ 32-33 E. Consent
R. v. Jobidon R. v. Cuerrier R. v. Ewanchuk R. v. Crangle LRCC § 1(2) MPC § 2.11 F. Necessity
The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens R. v. Perka R. v. Latimer LRCC § 3(9) MPC § 3.02 StGB § 34 Chapter 14. Excuse A. Incapacity ("Exemption")
1. Insanity

a. Definition
R. v. Cooper R. v. Kjeldsen R. v. Abbey R. v. Kirkby R. v. Schwartz R. v. Chaulk Winko v. British Columbia (Forensic Psychiatric Institute) R. v. Whittle Stephen, 1879 Draft Bill Criminal Code Bill Commission, 1879 Draft Bill Canadian Criminal Code, 1892 Canadian Criminal Code (current) LRCC § 3(6) MPC § 4.01 StGB § 20
b. Defense (vs. Element of Liability vs. Symptom vs. Offense)
R. v. Saxell R. v. Swain
c. Burden of Proof
R. v. Chaulk People v. Kohl
d. Diminished Responsibility
R. v. More R. v. Wright MPC §§ 4.02, 210.3(1)(b) StGB § 21
e. Irresistible Impulse
R. v. Borg 2. Infancy
R. v. Sawchuk R. v. Ogg-Moss LRCC § 3(4) MPC § 4.10 StGB § 19
3. "Insane Automatism"
R. v. Quick R. v. Rabey R. v. Parks R. v. Stone B. Inability
1. Duress
R. v. Carker (No. 2) R. v. Hibbert R. v. Ruzic LRCC § 3(8) MPC § 2.09 StGB § 35
2. Provocation
R. v. Hill R. v. Galgay R. v. Thibert R. v. Parent MPC § 210.3(1)(b) StGB § 213
3. Entrapment
R. v. Mack R. v. Barnes MPC § 2.13 N.Y. Penal Law § 40.05 People v. DeGina Ross, Tradeoffs in Undercover Investigations